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| The History of Galungan
|Balinese people commemorate Galungan,
the victory day of goodness (dharma)
against evil (adharma).
The history of Galungan refers to the legend of
Mayadenawa. It is said that once upon a time, there
was a powerful king, Mayadenawa, who reigned in
Balingkang, about a few kilometers north of Batur
Lake, Kintamani, Bangli. He also ruled such areas
as Makasar, Sumbawa, Bugis, Lombok, and Blambangan.
Mayadenawa was a descendant of daitya (powerful
giant), son of Goddess Danu. Because of his
magical power, Mayadenawa was able to transform
himself into various shapes of creatures.
Because of his supernatural power, Mayadenawa became
arrogantly evil. He forbad Balinese people to worship
God and destroyed all the shrines and temples. The
plants were destroyed. Food shortages and diseases
occurred. People were suffered but they did not
have the courage to fight against Mayadenawa because
of his magical power.
Mpu Kulputih, a powerful Hindu priest, was concerned
upon the suffering. He then meditated at Besakih
Temple to ask for God’s guidance. In his meditation,
he received revelation from God Mahadewa that he
should go to Jambu Dwipa (India)
and ask for help.
It was not clear about who went to India, but afterward
it was said that a platoon of troop from heaven
with complete weapons came to attack Mayadenawa.
The troop was led by God Indra. The right wing of
the platoon was led by Citrasena and Citraganda.
The left wing was led by Jayantaka while Gandarwa
led the main platoon.
God Indra sent Bhagawan Narada to spy Mayadenawa
Kingdom, but Mayadenawa has found out about this.
Therefore, he prepared his troop to face the attack.
A dreadful war broke up that caused many victims
from both sides. Since God Indra’s troop was
much stronger, Mayadenawa's troops ran off and left
Mayadenawa and his assistant, Si Kala Wong.
The battle had to be stopped, because the night
has come. When God Indra’s troop were still
asleep, Mayadenawa came and created ‘tirtha
water) nearby. He then ran away by walking
his angled feet sideways in order not to leave any
footprints on the ground. The area passed by Mayadenawa
is later known as ‘Tampaksiring’
which literally means angled footsteps.
The toxic water poisoned God Indra’s troop.
God Indra then created another spring to cure his
troop, called Tirta Empul (spring).
The holy spring flew to form a river which is called
Tukad Pakerisan (Pakerisan
God Indra’s troop then chased Mayadenawa who
transformed himself into several creatures. The
area where Mayadenawa transformed into ‘manuk
raya’ (big bird)
is called Manukaya village. The area where he turned
into ‘buah timbul’
(a kind of vegetable)
is later known as Timbul village. The place where
he transformed into ‘busung’
(young coconut leaf)
is called Busung village while a place where he
turned into a goddess (dewata)
is known as Kedewatan village.
Lastly, Mayadenawa transformed himself into a huge
rock. God Indra shot him to dead with an arrow.
His blood flew and formed a river called Tukad Petanu
(Petanu River). It
is believed that the river was cursed. If it was
used to water the rice field, blood would come out
of the paddies and the paddies would smell. This
curse will last in 1000 years.
The death of Mayadenawa was later celebrated as
the victory of goodness (dharma)
against evil (adharma).
This triumph day is commemorated every six months
(210 days) of Balinese
almanac and is called Galungan. It is called Galungan,
possibly because it is occurred on wuku Galungan
(based on Balinese almanac).